Java vs Python,谁能胜出?

Java vs Python,谁能胜出?作为程序猿,这个问题除了从数据角度分析外,我们更应该从编程语言本身的使用和体验来感受对比一番,然后再谨慎的给出自己的答案。

资历

Java诞生于1995年,Python诞生于1991年,是不是很意外,大家以为Java廉颇老矣,Python年纪却更大。

毛发的PK

Java之父James Gosling
python之父Guido van Rossum

Hello World

Java版

public class HelloWorld {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("hello java world");
    }
}

Python版

print("hello python world")

Java说:Hi, code boy.

  • 先定义一个类
  • 再定义一个main入口方法
  • 然后打印输出hello world

Python说:Hi, code boy. Just hello world!

字符串

要说代码中最丑的字符串是什么,那必须是sql。
Java中的sql

String uglySql = "SELECT * FROM"
                + " program_language"
                + " WHERE"
                + " NAME = 'Java'"
                + " AND rank > 5";

Python中的sql

beautiful_sql = """
    SELECT
        *
    FROM
        program_language
    WHERE
        NAME = 'Python'
    AND rank > 5
"""

列表

钢铁侠:Hi,贾维斯,给我一份最新的世界电影票房排名前10的榜单
Java版贾维斯

List top10 = Arrays.asList("Avatar",
                "Titanic",
                "Star Wars: The Force Awakens",
                "Avengers: Infinity War",
                "Jurassic World",
                "Marvel's The Avengers",
                "Furious 7",
                "Avengers: Age of Ultron",
                "Black Panther",
                "Avengers: Endgame");

Python版贾维斯

top10 = [
    "Avatar",
    "Titanic",
    "Star Wars: The Force Awakens",
    "Avengers: Infinity War",
    "Jurassic World",
    "Marvel's The Avengers",
    "Furious 7",
    "Avengers: Age of Ultron",
    "Black Panther",
    "Avengers: Endgame"
]

钢铁侠:Ok,贾维斯,well done,现在给我排名前3的就行了,我比较关注
Java版贾维斯

List top3 = top10.subList(0,3);

Python版贾维斯

top3 = top10[:3]

映射/字典

英文不是很好,上面的榜单谁帮忙翻译一下?
Java

Map top10Map = new HashMap();
top10Map.put("Avatar", "阿凡达");
top10Map.put("Titanic", "泰坦尼克号");
top10Map.put("Star Wars: The Force Awakens", "星球大战:原力觉醒");
top10Map.put("Avengers: Infinity War", "复仇者联盟:无限战争");
top10Map.put("Jurassic World", "侏罗纪世界");
top10Map.put("Marvel's The Avengers", "复仇者联盟");
top10Map.put("Furious 7", "速度与激情7");
top10Map.put("Avengers: Age of Ultron", "复仇者联盟:奥创纪元");
top10Map.put("Black Panther", "黑豹");
top10Map.put("Avengers: Endgame", "复仇者联盟:终局之战");

String movie_en_name = "Avengers: Endgame";
System.out.println(movie_en_name + "->" + top10Map.get(movie_en_name));

Python

top10_dic = {
    "Avatar": "阿凡达",
    "Titanic": "泰坦尼克号",
    "Star Wars: The Force Awakens": "星球大战:原力觉醒",
    "Avengers: Infinity War": "复仇者联盟:无限战争",
    "Jurassic World": "侏罗纪世界",
    "Marvel's The Avengers": "复仇者联盟",
    "Furious 7": "速度与激情7",
    "Avengers: Age of Ultron": "复仇者联盟:奥创纪元",
    "Black Panther": "黑豹",
    "Avengers: Endgame": "复仇者联盟:终局之战"
}
movie_en_name = "Avengers: Endgame"
print(movie_en_name, "->", top10_dic[movie_en_name])

分支

假如可以回到过去,你会做什么?
Java

Calendar timeMachine = Calendar.getInstance();
int year = timeMachine.get(Calendar.YEAR);
if (year >= 1980 && year = 1990 && year = 2000 && year < 2010) {
    System.out.println("学习,工作");
} else {
    System.out.println("工作,成家,一胎,二胎");
}

Python

time_machine = datetime.datetime.now()
year = time_machine.year
if 1980 <= year < 1990:
    print("玩")
elif 1990 <= year < 2000:
    print("学习")
elif 2000 <= year < 2010:
    print("学习,工作")
else:
    print("工作,成家,一胎,二胎")

循环

90年代,当我们还小时,被罚抄书了,多么不幸的事,谁来拯救?
Java

try {
    FileReader fileReader = new FileReader("book.txt");
    BufferedReader bookReader = new BufferedReader(fileReader);
    String line;
    while ((line = bookReader.readLine()) != null) {
        System.out.println(line);
    }
    fileReader.close();
    bookReader.close();
} catch (IOException e) {
    e.printStackTrace();
}

Python

for line in open("book.txt"):
    print(line)

方法/函数

在钢铁侠多次要求取世界电影票房排名前10的榜单,和前3后,贾维斯进化了。
Java版贾维斯

private String fetchHtmlFromMojo() {
    // fetch html...
    String html = "";
    return html;
}

private List parseTop100(String html) {
    // parse html...
    List top100 = new ArrayList();
    return top100;
}

private List getTopN(int num) {
    String html = fetchHtmlFromMojo();
    List top100 = parseTop100(html);
    return top100.subList(0, num);
}

Python版贾维斯

def fetch_html_from_mojo():
    # fetch html...
    html = ""
    return html


def parse_top100(html):
    # parse html...
    top100 = []
    return top100


def get_topn(num):
    html = fetch_html_from_mojo()
    top100 = parse_top100(html)
    return top100[:num]

终极贾维斯
Java

public class Robot {
    private String name = "贾维斯";
    private Map movieMap = new HashMap();
    
    public Robot(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    private String fetchHtmlFromMojo() {
        // fetch html...
        String html = "";
        return html;
    }

    private List parseTop100(String html) {
        // parse html...
        List top100 = new ArrayList();
        return top100;
    }

    public List getTopN(int num) {
        String html = fetchHtmlFromMojo();
        List top100 = parseTop100(html);
        return top100.subList(0, num);
    }

    public String translate(String movieEnName) {
        return movieMap.get(movieEnName);
    }
}

Python

class Robot:
    name = "贾维斯"
    movie_dic = dict()

    def __init__(self, name):
        self.name = name

    def fetch_html_from_mojo(self):
        # fetch html...
        html = ""
        return html

    def parse_top100(self, html):
        # parse html...
        top100 = []
        return top100

    def get_topn(self, num):
        html = self.fetch_html_from_mojo()
        top100 = self.parse_top100(html)
        return top100[:num]

    def translate(self, movie_en_name):
        return self.movie_dic[movie_en_name]

结论

Java vs Python,谁胜出?说实话,颜值方面Python确实高过Java很多(语法简洁,作者头发浓密),但是,Java在互联网攻城掠地,Python在人工智能快速崛起,各有各的好,非要说谁胜出,当然是我们程序猿自己了,理解编程语言的共性,拥抱编程语言的多样性,让我们可以快速在不同场景做出合适的选择,创造属于程序猿的未来。

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