Go Http Client连接优化





2、允许 HTTP pipelining
(HTTP 1.1中支持)的请求及响应模式

由于之前使用的是默认的httpclient 未做任何优化我们来看看DefaultTransport定义

// DefaultTransport is the default implementation of Transport and is
// used by DefaultClient. It establishes network connections as needed
// and caches them for reuse by subsequent calls. It uses HTTP proxies
// as directed by the $HTTP_PROXY and $NO_PROXY (or $http_proxy and
// $no_proxy) environment variables.
var DefaultTransport RoundTripper = &Transport{
    Proxy: ProxyFromEnvironment,
    DialContext: (&net.Dialer{
        Timeout:   30 * time.Second,
        KeepAlive: 30 * time.Second,
        DualStack: true,
    MaxIdleConns:          100,
    IdleConnTimeout:       90 * time.Second,
    TLSHandshakeTimeout:   10 * time.Second,
    ExpectContinueTimeout: 1 * time.Second,
  • net.Dialer.Timeout 限制创建一个TCP连接使用的时间(如果需要一个新的链接)
  • http.Transport.MaxIdleConns 最大空闲连接数是100
  • http.Transport.IdleConnTimeout IdleConnTimeout它用于控制一个闲置连接在连接池中的保留时间,而不考虑一个客户端请求被阻塞在哪个阶段。
  • http.Transport.TLSHandshakeTimeout TLS握手超时时间

http client发起请求一般是由Do(req *Request) (*Response, error)方法开始,而真正处理请求分发的是transport的RoundTrip(*Request) (*Response, error)方法。那么Transport 到底应该怎么设置才合理呢?

// Transport only retries a request upon encountering a network error
// if the request is idempotent and either has no body or has its
// Request.GetBody defined. HTTP requests are considered idempotent if
// they have HTTP methods GET, HEAD, OPTIONS, or TRACE; or if their
// Header map contains an "Idempotency-Key" or "X-Idempotency-Key"
// entry. If the idempotency key value is an zero-length slice, the
// request is treated as idempotent but the header is not sent on the
// wire.
type Transport struct {
    idleMu       sync.Mutex
    closeIdle    bool                                // user has requested to close all idle conns
    idleConn     map[connectMethodKey][]*persistConn // most recently used at end
    idleConnWait map[connectMethodKey]wantConnQueue  // waiting getConns
    idleLRU      connLRU

    reqMu       sync.Mutex
    reqCanceler map[*Request]func(error)

    altMu    sync.Mutex   // guards changing altProto only
    altProto atomic.Value // of nil or map[string]RoundTripper, key is URI scheme

    connsPerHostMu   sync.Mutex
    connsPerHost     map[connectMethodKey]int
    connsPerHostWait map[connectMethodKey]wantConnQueue // waiting getConns

    // Proxy specifies a function to return a proxy for a given
    // Request. If the function returns a non-nil error, the
    // request is aborted with the provided error.
    // The proxy type is determined by the URL scheme. "http",
    // "https", and "socks5" are supported. If the scheme is empty,
    // "http" is assumed.
    // If Proxy is nil or returns a nil *URL, no proxy is used.
    Proxy func(*Request) (*url.URL, error)

    // DialContext specifies the dial function for creating unencrypted TCP connections.
    // If DialContext is nil (and the deprecated Dial below is also nil),
    // then the transport dials using package net.
    // DialContext runs concurrently with calls to RoundTrip.
    // A RoundTrip call that initiates a dial may end up using
    // a connection dialed previously when the earlier connection
    // becomes idle before the later DialContext completes.
    DialContext func(ctx context.Context, network, addr string) (net.Conn, error)

    // Dial specifies the dial function for creating unencrypted TCP connections.
    // Dial runs concurrently with calls to RoundTrip.
    // A RoundTrip call that initiates a dial may end up using
    // a connection dialed previously when the earlier connection
    // becomes idle before the later Dial completes.
    // Deprecated: Use DialContext instead, which allows the transport
    // to cancel dials as soon as they are no longer needed.
    // If both are set, DialContext takes priority.
    Dial func(network, addr string) (net.Conn, error)

    // DialTLS specifies an optional dial function for creating
    // TLS connections for non-proxied HTTPS requests.
    // If DialTLS is nil, Dial and TLSClientConfig are used.
    // If DialTLS is set, the Dial hook is not used for HTTPS
    // requests and the TLSClientConfig and TLSHandshakeTimeout
    // are ignored. The returned net.Conn is assumed to already be
    // past the TLS handshake.
    DialTLS func(network, addr string) (net.Conn, error)

    // TLSClientConfig specifies the TLS configuration to use with
    // tls.Client.
    // If nil, the default configuration is used.
    // If non-nil, HTTP/2 support may not be enabled by default.
    TLSClientConfig *tls.Config

    // TLSHandshakeTimeout specifies the maximum amount of time waiting to
    // wait for a TLS handshake. Zero means no timeout.
    TLSHandshakeTimeout time.Duration

    // DisableKeepAlives, if true, disables HTTP keep-alives and
    // will only use the connection to the server for a single
    // HTTP request.
    // This is unrelated to the similarly named TCP keep-alives.
    DisableKeepAlives bool

    // DisableCompression, if true, prevents the Transport from
    // requesting compression with an "Accept-Encoding: gzip"
    // request header when the Request contains no existing
    // Accept-Encoding value. If the Transport requests gzip on
    // its own and gets a gzipped response, it's transparently
    // decoded in the Response.Body. However, if the user
    // explicitly requested gzip it is not automatically
    // uncompressed.
    DisableCompression bool

    // MaxIdleConns controls the maximum number of idle (keep-alive)
    // connections across all hosts. Zero means no limit.
    MaxIdleConns int

    // MaxIdleConnsPerHost, if non-zero, controls the maximum idle
    // (keep-alive) connections to keep per-host. If zero,
    // DefaultMaxIdleConnsPerHost is used.
    MaxIdleConnsPerHost int

    // MaxConnsPerHost optionally limits the total number of
    // connections per host, including connections in the dialing,
    // active, and idle states. On limit violation, dials will block.
    // Zero means no limit.
    MaxConnsPerHost int

    // IdleConnTimeout is the maximum amount of time an idle
    // (keep-alive) connection will remain idle before closing
    // itself.
    // Zero means no limit.
    IdleConnTimeout time.Duration

    // ResponseHeaderTimeout, if non-zero, specifies the amount of
    // time to wait for a server's response headers after fully
    // writing the request (including its body, if any). This
    // time does not include the time to read the response body.
    ResponseHeaderTimeout time.Duration

    // ExpectContinueTimeout, if non-zero, specifies the amount of
    // time to wait for a server's first response headers after fully
    // writing the request headers if the request has an
    // "Expect: 100-continue" header. Zero means no timeout and
    // causes the body to be sent immediately, without
    // waiting for the server to approve.
    // This time does not include the time to send the request header.
    ExpectContinueTimeout time.Duration

    // TLSNextProto specifies how the Transport switches to an
    // alternate protocol (such as HTTP/2) after a TLS NPN/ALPN
    // protocol negotiation. If Transport dials an TLS connection
    // with a non-empty protocol name and TLSNextProto contains a
    // map entry for that key (such as "h2"), then the func is
    // called with the request's authority (such as "example.com"
    // or "example.com:1234") and the TLS connection. The function
    // must return a RoundTripper that then handles the request.
    // If TLSNextProto is not nil, HTTP/2 support is not enabled
    // automatically.
    TLSNextProto map[string]func(authority string, c *tls.Conn) RoundTripper

    // ProxyConnectHeader optionally specifies headers to send to
    // proxies during CONNECT requests.
    ProxyConnectHeader Header

    // MaxResponseHeaderBytes specifies a limit on how many
    // response bytes are allowed in the server's response
    // header.
    // Zero means to use a default limit.
    MaxResponseHeaderBytes int64

    // WriteBufferSize specifies the size of the write buffer used
    // when writing to the transport.
    // If zero, a default (currently 4KB) is used.
    WriteBufferSize int

    // ReadBufferSize specifies the size of the read buffer used
    // when reading from the transport.
    // If zero, a default (currently 4KB) is used.
    ReadBufferSize int

    // nextProtoOnce guards initialization of TLSNextProto and
    // h2transport (via onceSetNextProtoDefaults)
    nextProtoOnce      sync.Once
    h2transport        h2Transport // non-nil if http2 wired up
    tlsNextProtoWasNil bool        // whether TLSNextProto was nil when the Once fired

    // ForceAttemptHTTP2 controls whether HTTP/2 is enabled when a non-zero
    // Dial, DialTLS, or DialContext func or TLSClientConfig is provided.
    // By default, use of any those fields conservatively disables HTTP/2.
    // To use a custom dialer or TLS config and still attempt HTTP/2
    // upgrades, set this to true.
    ForceAttemptHTTP2 bool

Transport是一个支持HTTP、HTTPS、HTTP Proxies的RoundTripper,是协程安全的,并默认支持连接池。

if t.closeIdle {
return errCloseIdle
if t.idleConn == nil {
t.idleConn = make(map[connectMethodKey][]*persistConn)
idles := t.idleConn[key]
if len(idles) >= t.maxIdleConnsPerHost() {
return errTooManyIdleHost
for _, exist := range idles {
if exist == pconn {
log.Fatalf("dup idle pconn %p in freelist", pconn)

IdleConn不仅受到MaxIdleConn的限制,也受到MaxIdleConnsPerHost的限制,DefaultTranspor中是没有设置该参数的,而默认的参数为2这是 RFC2616

MaxIdleConnsPerHost限制的是相同connectMethodKey(代表着不同的协议 不同的host,也就是不同的请求)到 persistConn 的映射的空闲连接数量

// Register to receive next connection that becomes idle.
    if t.idleConnWait == nil {
        t.idleConnWait = make(map[connectMethodKey]wantConnQueue)


type Config struct {
    Dial            xtime.Duration
    Timeout         xtime.Duration
    KeepAlive       xtime.Duration
    MaxConns        int
    MaxIdle         int
    BackoffInterval xtime.Duration // Interval is second
    retryCount      int

type HttpClient struct {
    conf       *Config
    client     *xhttp.Client
    dialer     *net.Dialer
    transport  *xhttp.Transport
    retryCount int
    retrier    retry.Retriable

// NewHTTPClient returns a new instance of httpClient
func NewHTTPClient(c *Config) *HttpClient {
    dialer := &net.Dialer{
        Timeout:   time.Duration(c.Dial),
        KeepAlive: time.Duration(c.KeepAlive),
    transport := &xhttp.Transport{
        DialContext:         dialer.DialContext,
        MaxConnsPerHost:     c.MaxConns,
        MaxIdleConnsPerHost: c.MaxIdle,
        IdleConnTimeout:     time.Duration(c.KeepAlive),
        TLSClientConfig:     &tls.Config{InsecureSkipVerify: true},
    _ = http2.ConfigureTransport(transport)
    bo := backoff.NewConstantBackoff(c.BackoffInterval)
    return &HttpClient{
        conf: c,
        client: &xhttp.Client{
            Transport: transport,
        retryCount: defaultRetryCount,
        retrier:    retry.NewRetrier(bo),

完整代码: https://github.com/quan-xie/tuba/blob/master/transport/httpclient/context_client.go