D3.js – Data-Driven Documents D3.js – 数据驱动文档

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D3.jsis a JavaScript library for manipulating documents based on data.

是一个用于根据数据操作文档的JavaScript库。 D3
helps you bring data to life using HTML, SVG, and CSS. D3’s emphasis on web standards gives you the full capabilities of modern browsers without tying yourself to a proprietary framework, combining powerful visualization components and a data-driven approach to DOM manipulation.
帮助您使用HTML,SVG和CSS将数据变为现实。 D3对Web标准的强调为您提供了现代浏览器的全部功能,而无需将自己与专有框架联系起来,将强大的可视化组件和数据驱动方法结合到DOM操作中。

Download the latest version here: {#version}

To link directly to the latest release, copy this snippet:


The full source and tests
are also available

也可以 for download
on GitHub.
on GitHub.


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D3allows you to bind arbitrary data to a Document Object Model (DOM), and then apply data-driven transformations to the document. For example, you can use D3 to generate an HTML table from an array of numbers. Or, use the same data to create an interactive SVG bar chart with smooth transitions and interaction.

D3 is not a monolithic framework that seeks to provide every conceivable feature. Instead, D3 solves the crux of the problem: efficient manipulation of documents based on data. This avoids proprietary representation and affords extraordinary flexibility, exposing the full capabilities of web standards such as HTML, SVG, and CSS. With minimal overhead, D3 is extremely fast, supporting large datasets and dynamic behaviors for interaction and animation. D3’s functional style allows code reuse through a diverse collection of

D3不是一个单一的框架,旨在提供所有可能的功能。相反,D3解决了问题的关键:基于数据有效地处理文档。这避免了专有的表示,并提供了非凡的灵活性,暴露了HTML,SVG和CSS等Web标准的全部功能。 D3的开销极小,支持大型数据集和交互动画的动态行为。 D3的功能风格允许通过各种各样的集合重用代码 official

and community-developed


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Modifying documents using the

使用。修改文档 W3C DOM API
is tedious: the method names are verbose, and the imperative approach requires manual iteration and bookkeeping of temporary state. For example, to change the text color of paragraph elements:

var paragraphs = document.getElementsByTagName("p");
for (var i = 0; i < paragraphs.length; i++) {
  var paragraph = paragraphs.item(i);
  paragraph.style.setProperty("color", "blue", null);

D3 employs a declarative approach, operating on arbitrary sets of nodes called

D3采用声明式方法,在任意节点集上运行 selections
. For example, you can rewrite the above loop as:

d3.selectAll("p").style("color", "blue");

Yet, you can still manipulate individual nodes as needed:

d3.select("body").style("background-color", "black");

Selectors are defined by the

选择器由。定义 W3C Selectors API
and supported natively by modern browsers. The above examples select nodes by tag name (

并由现代浏览器本地支持。以上示例按标签名称选择节点( "p"

and "body"
, respectively). Elements may be selected using a variety of predicates, including containment, attribute values, class and ID.
, 分别)。可以使用各种谓词来选择元素,包括包含,属性值,类和ID。

D3 provides numerous methods for mutating nodes: setting attributes or styles; registering event listeners; adding, removing or sorting nodes; and changing HTML or text content. These suffice for the vast majority of needs. Direct access to the underlying DOM is also possible, as each D3 selection is simply an array of nodes.

{#properties}Dynamic Properties

Readers familiar with other DOM frameworks such as

熟悉其他DOM框架的读者,如 jQuery
should immediately recognize similarities with D3. Yet styles, attributes, and other properties can be specified as

应立即认识到与D3的相似之处。然而,样式,属性和其他属性可以指定为 functions of data
in D3, not just simple constants. Despite their apparent simplicity, these functions can be surprisingly powerful; the

在D3中,不仅仅是简单的常量。尽管它们显而易见,但这些功能可以令人惊讶地强大;该 d3.geoPath
function, for example, projects

功能,例如,项目 geographic coordinates
into SVG

into SVG path data
. D3 provides many built-in reusable functions and function factories, such as

。 D3提供了许多内置的可重用功能和功能工厂,例如 graphical primitives
for area, line and pie charts.

For example, to randomly color paragraphs:

d3.selectAll("p").style("color", function() {
  return "hsl(" + Math.random() * 360 + ",100%,50%)";

To alternate shades of gray for even and odd nodes:

d3.selectAll("p").style("color", function(d, i) {
  return i % 2 ? "#fff" : "#eee";

Computed properties often refer to bound data. Data is specified as an array of values, and each value is passed as the first argument (

计算属性通常引用绑定数据。数据被指定为值数组,每个值作为第一个参数传递( d
) to selection functions. With the default join-by-index, the first element in the data array is passed to the first node in the selection, the second element to the second node, and so on. For example, if you bind an array of numbers to paragraph elements, you can use these numbers to compute dynamic font sizes:

  .data([4, 8, 15, 16, 23, 42])
    .style("font-size", function(d) { return d + "px"; });

Once the data has been bound to the document, you can omit the

一旦数据绑定到文档,您可以省略 data
operator; D3 will retrieve the previously-bound data. This allows you to recompute properties without rebinding.
操作; D3将检索先前绑定的数据。这允许您在不重新绑定的情况下重新计算属性。

{#enter-exit}Enter and Exit

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Using D3’s

Using D3’s enter

and exit
selections, you can create new nodes for incoming data and remove outgoing nodes that are no longer needed.

When data is bound to a selection, each element in the data array is paired with the corresponding node in the selection. If there are fewer nodes than data, the extra data elements form the enter selection, which you can instantiate by appending to the

当数据绑定到选择时,数据数组中的每个元素都与选择中的相应节点配对。如果节点数量少于数据,则额外的数据元素将形成输入选择,您可以通过附加到实例来实例化 enter
selection. For example:

  .data([4, 8, 15, 16, 23, 42])
    .text(function(d) { return "I'm number " + d + "!"; });

Updating nodes are the default selection—the result of the

更新节点是默认选择—结果 data
operator. Thus, if you forget about the enter and exit selections, you will automatically select only the elements for which there exists corresponding data. A common pattern is to break the initial selection into three parts: the updating nodes to modify, the entering nodes to add, and the exiting nodes to remove.

// Update...
var p = d3.select("body")
  .data([4, 8, 15, 16, 23, 42])
    .text(function(d) { return d; });

// Enter...
    .text(function(d) { return d; });

// Exit...

By handling these three cases separately, you specify precisely which operations run on which nodes. This improves performance and offers greater control over transitions. For example, with a bar chart you might initialize entering bars using the old scale, and then transition entering bars to the new scale along with the updating and exiting bars.

D3 lets you transform documents based on data; this includes both creating and destroying elements. D3 allows you to change an existing document in response to user interaction, animation over time, or even asynchronous notification from a third-party. A hybrid approach is even possible, where the document is initially rendered on the server, and updated on the client via D3.
D3允许您根据数据转换文档;这包括创建和销毁元素。 D3允许您更改现有文档以响应用户交互,动画随时间推移,甚至来自第三方的异步通知。甚至可以采用混合方法,其中文档最初在服务器上呈现,并通过D3在客户端上更新。

{#transformation}Transformation, not Representation

D3 does not introduce a new visual representation. Unlike

D3没有引入新的视觉表现。不像 Processing

or Protovis
, D3’s vocabulary of graphical marks comes directly from web standards: HTML, SVG, and CSS. For example, you can create SVG elements using D3 and style them with external stylesheets. You can use composite filter effects, dashed strokes and clipping. If browser vendors introduce new features tomorrow, you’ll be able to use them immediately—no toolkit update required. And, if you decide in the future to use a toolkit other than D3, you can take your knowledge of standards with you!
,D3的图形标记词汇直接来自Web标准:HTML,SVG和CSS。例如,您可以使用D3创建SVG元素,并使用外部样式表对其进行样式设置。您可以使用复合滤镜效果,虚线笔划和剪裁。如果浏览器厂商明天推出新功能,您将能够立即使用它们 – 无需更新工具包。而且,如果您决定将来使用D3以外的工具包,您可以随身携带标准知识!

Best of all, D3 is easy to debug using the browser’s built-in element inspector: the nodes that you manipulate with D3 are exactly those that the browser understands natively.


D3’s focus on transformation extends naturally to animated transitions. Transitions gradually interpolate styles and attributes over time. Tweening can be controlled via easing functions such as “elastic”, “cubic-in-out” and “linear”. D3’s interpolators support both primitives, such as numbers and numbers embedded within strings (font sizes, path data,

D3对转换的关注自然延伸到动画转换。随着时间的推移,过渡会逐渐插入样式和属性。可以通过缓和功能来控制补间,例如”弹性”,”立方体输出”和”线性”。 D3的内插器支持两种基元,例如字符串中嵌入的数字和数字(字体大小,路径数据, etc.
), and compound values. You can even extend D3’s interpolator registry to support complex properties and data structures.

For example, to fade the background of the page to black:

    .style("background-color", "black");

Or, to resize circles in a symbol map with a staggered delay:

    .delay(function(d, i) { return i * 10; })
    .attr("r", function(d) { return Math.sqrt(d * scale); });

By modifying only the attributes that actually change, D3 reduces overhead and allows greater graphical complexity at high frame rates. D3 also allows sequencing of complex transitions via events. And, you can still use CSS3 transitions; D3 does not replace the browser’s toolbox, but exposes it in a way that is easier to use.
通过仅修改实际更改的属性,D3可降低开销,并在高帧速率下实现更高的图形复杂性。 D3还允许通过事件对复杂转换进行排序。并且,您仍然可以使用CSS3过渡; D3不会取代浏览器的工具箱,但会以更易于使用的方式公开它。

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